They made extensive usage of polymer valves produced by Richard Mathies also, Ph.D., and his colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley, and credit the Mathies group for teaching them how to make and use these valves. To maintain costs low, the investigators produced the microfluidic device itself as easy as possible. All injection ports, pumps, heaters, and optical recognition components have a home in a manifold that clamps around the cup microfluidic slide. Engineering function is now underway to develop a manifold ideal for use in medical settings and eventual human medical trials. The investigators, in addition to researchers who did not take part in this study, note that this device should work for just about any gene-based assay that a PCR primer exists or can be developed.S.Ladies were excluded if they got preexisting diabetes, an unusual result on a glucose screening test before 24 weeks of gestation, prior gestational diabetes, a history of stillbirth, multifetal gestation, asthma, or chronic hypertension; if they were taking corticosteroids; if there is a known fetal anomaly; or if imminent or preterm delivery was likely due to maternal disease or fetal conditions. All the females who participated in the analysis provided written informed consent. The scholarly study was approved by the individual subjects committee at each participating center. After an overnight fast, eligible females completed a blinded 3-hour 100-g oral glucose-tolerance test.